Caravan Workhorse Of The African Skies.}

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Submitted by: Anthony Mmeri

This year, the Cessna Caravan commemorates the 30th year in service since it was certified by the FAA and entered into service in October 1984.

The Cessna Caravan was developed as a significant upgrade of the Cessna 208, so as to address the limitations in payload and operational performance. The need to develop a single engine aircraft with a payload of 1000 kilograms or 12 passengers but still takeoff in less than 1000 metres was the operational performance required by the majority of operators.

The design of the first generation of the Caravans featured an airframe whose basic design was heavily borrowed from the architecture of the Cessna 208 but with a much wider and longer fuselage to make a total length of 12,6 metres.

The cabin was designed to be simple so as to make the aircraft serve the role in bush environments as it was not pressurized .It could accommodate 12 passengers in a high density airline configuration or as a freighter with a one tone payload.

The prototype was completed by the Cessna engineers with the major shift being in the power plant installation which was for a turboprop engine that would ensure high performance and versatility due to the power to weight ratio and the fuel economy desired. After thorough assessment, Cessna chose to go with the Pratt and Whitney PT6A-114 engine that was one of the most successful engine program mes implemented by the Canadian OEM.

The PT6 was the engine of choice for a wide range of medium class aircraft due to the its efficiency, simple, but effective, design in addition to the high dispatch rate that the engine enjoyed.

The first prototype made its maiden flight in December 1982 with flight tests for the type certification process. This continued until October, 1984, when the final FAA Type Certification was issued.

Launch customer was FedEx, which required a versatile cargo freighter to deliver a one tone payload across various locations some of which had unpaved airstrips. Cessna named the cargo version as the cargo master and later followed it with a stretched version naming it the Super cargo master with an additional payload.

Cessna has since delivered over 250 units to FedEx and it is still the single largest operator of the model to date accounting for over 10% of all the units ever produced by the Wichita, Kansas-based manufacturer.

However it is the passenger version that has been the game changer as far as aviation is concerned especially in the developing nations in Asia and Africa. The first version of the Caravan referred to as the Cessna C208 Caravan was based on the design of the cargo master. It was configured to be a basic nine or ten-seater and it became a favorite to many African operators who required a versatile aircraft that could handle bush flying conditions and be capable of handling a payload of 10 passengers but still have an economical operational cost.

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The cabin interior can be fitted with seats or cargo holds with the standard high density airline configuration featuring three rows of 1-2 seating.

The Cessna Grand Caravan, also referred to as the Caravan 11 was released later by Cessna after the overwhelming success of the basic Caravan, especially in Africa. The Grand Caravan was based on the design of the Super Cargo master and was configured by many operators in a high density airline configuration with four rows of 1-2 seating thus making it capable of accommodating 13 passengers with the option of setting it in a low density passenger configuration or even with a combination of passenger and cargo.

A further advantage, thanks to the rugged construction of the spring based undercarriage, is its high ground clearance enabling it to accommodate an addition cargo pod for passenger baggage or cargo. Also the basic airframe can be fitted with various landing gear types so as to operate in a wide variety of environments like landing skis, enlarged tyres for unprepared runways and floats for the amphibian model for marine conditions.

The Caravan can also be configured for a skydiving role with a port side cargo hatch door that features a roll up door.

The basic Caravan was thus able to serve in various roles including standard commuter airline role, air ambulance, aerial survey, search and rescue and cargo.However, it is in the passenger role that made the aircraft such a success as it only needs four passengers in a standard ticketing pricing to break even, thus making it an idea aircraft to serve in commuter airline destinations with fluctuating route passenger density.

After 28 years of producing the basic Caravan model with the analogue instrumentation, Cessna announced that all subsequent Caravans would be fitted with a full glass cockpit that featured the Garmin G1000 avionics suite.

The aircraft has been a wide success in Africa due to its suitability in bush operating conditions that offers reliability with a high dispatch rate and relatively low operational costs. The aircraft has been the mainstay in the general and regional aviation industry in Africa.

In May, 2012, Cessna announced that it would partner with a Chinese manufacturer to deliver a new variant for the Chinese market. The government owned China Aviation Industry General Aircraft set up an assembly for the Caravans in Shijiazhuang.

Many Versions

The latest variant is the 208B Grand Caravan EX Model that was certified in January 2013 as a manufacturer based solution in response to the various Caravan power upgraded Model conversions including the Black hawk and Texan converted models.

The Caravan EX is powered by an 867 hp (647 Kw) Pratt and Whitney Canada PT6A-140 that improves climb performance by 38% unlike the Black hawk conversion that uses the PT6A-62 and Super van that utilizes the Honeywell TPE331-12 engine. The model is also aimed at float operators and will compete with aftermarket conversion.

Another successful variant was the 208B Super Cargo master that found much favour with FedEx which purchased over 260 units of this model.

The 208B Caravan is the amphibian version that is fitted with Wipaire 8000 floats for water landing and land operations.

However, it was the Soloy Pathfinder 21 that was the most powerful version ever produced as it was a twin engine model. Its construction featured two PT6D-114A engines that were coupled to drive a single propeller with its airframe construction featuring a 1, 8-metre stretched fuselage.

The success of the Caravan led to operators demanding even more with performance improving maintenance providers coming up with various market driven solutions, including the 850 Caravan that was fitted with a 850 Honeywell TPE 331-12JR-701S engine by Aero Twin, which later produced the 950 Grand Caravan that was installed with the Honeywell TPE331-12JR-704AT engine.

The Super van 900 by Texas Turbine went even further with a 1000 hp Honeywell TPE331-12JR that was flat rated at 900 hp, while the Caravan XP42A by Black hawk Modifications upgraded the Caravan with a 850 hp PT6A-42.All these upgraded versions improved the Caravans performance by over 30% in terms of take off run, fuel consumption and power delivered.

The militarily versions include the U-27A that was the based on the 208A, while the C-98 and C-16 were the designations for the Brazilian and US Army respectively.

The C-208 was designated as the Combat Caravan being an armed version with Hellfire missiles used by the Lebanese and Iraq air forces.

An Instant HIT

When the first Caravans were introduced to the African market, especially the East African market, in the early 1990s, it became an instant hit as the then general and regional aviation market fleet choice in the 8-10 seater class aircraft was dominated by supercharged piston engine driven aircraft like the Cessna 406.

During this time turboprop aircraft in this class were not common, but the operational challenges of piston driven aircraft of this class were ever increasing, key among them being the relatively higher operational costs and reliability leading to a lower dispatch rate of the piston engines especially in bush destinations were other problems.

Thus the Caravan with its powerful and reliable PT6 engines with its simple operational design and lower operational costs meant that it had a big role to play in the African market.

The main challenge at the time was that since the aircraft was relatively new to the market and performing very well, very few were on the second hand market thus operators had to part with the then over $1-million listed price so as to lay hands on what was a game changer to the industry.

The aircrafts popularity grew as most African regional operators transitioned from piston to turboprop aircraft. Then, with the rising fuel prices, the place of the Caravan was cemented in the industry.

Cessnas sales agents even went as far as saying in many circles that You cannot go wrong with a Caravan. It may have been seen as a marketing gimmick, but the African market, this turned out to be factual as the aircraft served so many roles successfully that some referred to it as having more uses than a Swiss Army knife.

Serving as a commuter airliner, freighter, air ambulance, surveillance, skydiving-the Caravan did it all, thus becoming one of the aircraft type with the highest number in the civil aircraft registry in many African nations, like Kenya where the Caravan is the most popular aircraft on the register.

As the Caravan will be turning 30 later this year, its impact on the African aviation industry has been powerful, in terms of the areas it has been able to serve. Despite its listed price increasing to well over $2-million for a factory new unit, this has not dampened sales even in a global recession as many African operators have been placing orders and even waiting for over a year to get their hands on the previous bird.

The Caravan has amassed over 13,5-million hours with over 2200units delivered over its three-decade history and has been certified in over 100 countries. Its role is anchored as an industry benchmark as other comparable aircraft in its class like the Quest Kodiak, Pilatus PC-12 and PAC 750 SL aim to get a bigger piece of the pie.

To list the Caravan operators in Africa would need too much space, so the question should be: Who among the African general and regional operators does not have a Caravan?

About the Author: Anthony A Juma is the Editor and Director Commercial and Flights Operations at Wings Over Africa Aviation Limited. This is an Air Charter Company that specializes on Cessna C-208B Scheduled & Private flights for Cargo & Passengers in Africa. The website has guided thousands of travelers to achieve their dream holiday. For more information and guidance, visit the site at

wingsoverafrica-aviation.com/index.php/flight-news.html

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Wikinews interviews Joe Schriner, Independent U.S. presidential candidate

Saturday, April 17, 2010

Journalist, counselor, painter, and US 2012 Presidential candidate Joe Schriner of Cleveland, Ohio took some time to discuss his campaign with Wikinews in an interview.

Schriner previously ran for president in 2000, 2004, and 2008, but failed to gain much traction in the races. He announced his candidacy for the 2012 race immediately following the 2008 election. Schriner refers to himself as the “Average Joe” candidate, and advocates a pro-life and pro-environmentalist platform. He has been the subject of numerous newspaper articles, and has published public policy papers exploring solutions to American issues.

Wikinews reporter William Saturn? talks with Schriner and discusses his campaign.


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Wikinews interviews Joe Schriner, Independent U.S. presidential candidate

American Indian Movement spokesperson dies, age 75

Wednesday, October 17, 2007

Vernon Bellecourt, once the primary spokesperson for the American Indian Movement, died recently at age 75. Bellecourt, an Ojibwa who fought for Native rights, was perhaps best known for his opposition to Native names and mascots for sports teams.

First in the headlines in 1972, Bellecourt organized a cross-country caravan of the Movement, to Washington. Once there, members of the group occupied the Bureau of Indian Affairs offices. His goal of international recognition for Aboriginal nations and their treaties found him meeting with figures like Libyan Colonel Muammar el-Qaddafi, and Palestine’s Yasir Arafat. In 1977 Leonard Peltier was convicted and sentenced to two consecutive life terms for the murder of two FBI Agents during a 1975 shoot-out on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation; Bellecourt led the campaign to free him.

Most recently, he visited Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, to discuss getting free or cheap heating oil for reservations.

His work as president of the National Coalition on Racism in Sports and Media made a much wider known mark, though. Bellecourt emphasized that he believed such names perpetuated racial stereotypes, clouding the real identities and problems facing natives.

Teams with native-related names could almost guarantee on Bellecourt showing up at major games. He twice burned an effigy of Chief Wahoo, the Cleveland Indians baseball team mascot, and both times was arrested. When the Washington Redskins of the National Football League made the Super Bowl, Vernon was there to protest. The United States Commission on Civil Rights was critical of such names by 2001, calling them “insensitive in light of the long history of forced assimilation”. Some newspapers have stopped using the names of teams with Native origins.

None of his “big four” targets have shown any indication of changing: the Washington Redskins, the Kansas City Chiefs, the Cleveland Indians or the Atlanta Braves.

Post-season use of American Indian mascots were banned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association in 2005, suggesting the names are “hostile or abusive”. Bellecourt was pleased with the NCAA sanctions, but suggested such actions were only going “half way”.

The Florida State Seminole and the Illinois Illini were among the 18 colleges affected by the ban. Florida president T.K. Wetherell threatened legal action in response. The Florida Seminole tribes have endorsed the University’s usage of the name, but some out-of-state tribes were “not supportive”, according to the NCAA vice president for diversity and inclusion.

Born WaBun-Inini, Bellecourt died from complications of pneumonia on October 13, in Minneapolis, Minnesota, United States.


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Wikinews interviews Joe Schriner, Independent U.S. presidential candidate

Saturday, April 17, 2010

Journalist, counselor, painter, and US 2012 Presidential candidate Joe Schriner of Cleveland, Ohio took some time to discuss his campaign with Wikinews in an interview.

Schriner previously ran for president in 2000, 2004, and 2008, but failed to gain much traction in the races. He announced his candidacy for the 2012 race immediately following the 2008 election. Schriner refers to himself as the “Average Joe” candidate, and advocates a pro-life and pro-environmentalist platform. He has been the subject of numerous newspaper articles, and has published public policy papers exploring solutions to American issues.

Wikinews reporter William Saturn? talks with Schriner and discusses his campaign.


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Wikinews interviews Joe Schriner, Independent U.S. presidential candidate

Lifted 4×4 Trucks Available For Sale}

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Submitted by: Hai Donlon

I will genuinely claim that there isn’t a single thing even remotely close to being as much fun as driving a huge lifted pickup truck down the road. On the other hand, while there are plenty of lifted trucks for sale across the country, you will need to know what you would like before purchasing a truck. If a truck isn’t lifted the right way there can be many different problems that might develop in the future. Seeing as there are a lot of factors to consider before purchasing a lifted truck, I want to share some suggestions and knowledge with you which will help you to get the best value. Thus, I really encourage you to go through these pointers while keeping these in your mind before you purchase a lifted pickup from a dealer or independent owner.

Was the truck lifted by a skilled professional or in an individual’s drive way? You would be amazed at how lots of people don’t feel to ask the seller this question, nevertheless it is usually really vital. Lifting a truck is not as simple as just altering out the tires. There is lots of operate needed and with that work, you can find also plenty of potential challenges. Just as an example, a lot of trucks will need new suspension parts just after they may be lifted also to a list of other points. It’s also critical to know that there are actually many strategies individuals use to lift a truck, although not all of them are recommended.

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Value is also an important aspect to contemplate. Anytime you happen to be shopping for a customized automobile or truck you could anticipate to see some quite high rates, but you have to don’t forget that customizing a vehicle does not necessarily result in a higher value tag. The reality is the fact that lifting a pickup truck can lower the value. Although the truck has been lifted, you are still paying for that truck not the alterations. I can understand that some individuals have spent a lot of cash on their upgrades, despite the fact that, in several circumstances the truck just isn’t worth the price tag they may be asking for. To give you an example, in case you had been to purchase a 1994 Dodge pickup with a lift kit, that you are nevertheless obtaining a 17 year old truck and there may perhaps be troubles associated having a truck this old.

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Prior to you go out and purchase a lifted truck, you may would like to consider the idea of acquiring a stock truck and lifting it yourself. Right here is a thing that you simply ought to definitely consider. Examine it this way, would you rather purchase a lifted truck with complications, or buy a good truck and then have it lifted the way you’d like it? The expenses will in all probability be concerning the similar and you will possess a tiny far more manage more than what the truck looks like and how it runs.

I extremely recommend that you contemplate the information above to generate confident that you get a superb truck. Just use your most effective judgement before getting something and don’t get wrapped up inside the shiny truck syndrome, it may finish up costing you a fortune in repair fees. Try and bear in mind that you’ll find loads of lifted trucks around, so do not buy one particular which you will regret. Happy shopping!

About the Author: Thank you for taking the time to examine my content. I truly delight in writing about automobiles and vehicles and hope to 1 day time have my own personal automotive magazine. Lifted vehicles are a lot of exciting to drive and you’ll be able to use our web site to seek out

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Car maker DeLorean dies at 80

Monday, March 21, 2005

Automobile industry pioneer, John DeLorean, died Saturday in a New Jersey hospital by complications from a stroke.

DeLorean was born in 1925 in Detroit, Michigan to European immigrant parents. He received an education in automotive engineering and quickly rose through the ranks of Packard and later General Motors (GM). DeLorean was credited with the development of the Pontiac GTO, which helped introduce the era of “muscle cars”. By 1965, DeLorean led the entire Pontiac division, and four years later was promoted to the prestigious position of leading GM’s Chevrolet.

In 1973, DeLorean quit General Motors and started his own company, the De Lorean Motor Company. The company’s product was the DMC-12, an unusual car featuring an unpainted, stainless-steel exterior and gull-wing doors. The company started production in 1981 but failed less than two years later, having produced under 9,000 vehicles. Despite the company’s failure and the car’s dismal sales, the car itself gained a cult following after the release of the 1985 movie Back to the Future which featured the car as a time-travel machine.

DeLorean himself was in nearly as much trouble as his company. In 1982 he was arrested for attempting to sell $24 million worth of cocaine to undercover police, and after his company’s failure, he became involved in a multitude of lawsuits alleging investor fraud. Though DeLorean successfully resolved the cocaine case after claiming entrapment, his other legal cases would drag on until 1999, when he declared bankruptcy.


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BMW announces 7.6% sales rise as US, China demand grows

Tuesday, August 9, 2011

Automobile manufacturing company BMW has announced that its sales increased by 7.6 per cent during the month of July. BMW reported that 129,094 units were sold during the month, consisting of the motor vehicle brands of BMW, Mini and Rolls-Royce Motor Cars.

In a statement, Ian Robertson, member of the Board of Management of BMW, told of the company reporting “the most successful July sales ever”, claiming that it is “well on [the] way to achieving our recently announced target of over 1.6 million vehicles in 2011, the best ever sales result for the BMW group”.

Demand increases were notable in the United States and China in particular. 21,409 vehicles were delivered by BMW in the United States in July, an increase of 11.7 per cent from July 2010. In China, 18,858 units were sold in the month, meaning a sales rise of 36.1 per cent on the same month last year, with the increased popularity being attributed to “substantial gains in many markets”, BMW said. Sales increases were also reported in South Korea, Russia, India and Brazil. BMW did admit to a decrease of sales by 0.8% in Germany, the country in which the company is based.

[BMW has had] the most successful July sales ever

As a brand, BMW sales stood at 108,721 for July, 7.1% more than July 2010. In the year to date, BMW delivered 962,468 vehicles, a 17.9 per cent rise. According to Agence France-Presse (AFP), developing markets have become the cause of the substantial popularity of high quality automobile manufacturers. However, growth in this area may decline later on in the year, due to the difficulties facing the global economy, AFP claims.

Meanwhile, General Motors stated on Friday that its China sales decreased by 1.8 per cent in July this year compared to the same month in 2010. This was due to a lowered demand for commercial vehicles, AFP reported.


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BMW announces 7.6% sales rise as US, China demand grows

Owsley Stanley, icon of 1960s counterculture, dies at 76

Thursday, March 17, 2011

Owsley Stanley, mass-producer of LSD, the drug underlying much of the culture of the 1960s California hippie era, died Sunday in a car accident in Australia at the age of 76, his family announced on Tuesday.

According to The New York Times, “Mr. Stanley lent the ’60s a great deal of its color — like White Lightning, Monterey Purple and Blue Cheer, the varieties of his LSD that were among the most popular.”

Stanley, a talented, self-taught chemist who was known for the purity of his LSD, supplied the drug to such music groups as the Grateful Dead, the Beatles, and Jimi Hendrix, and provided the acid for Ken Kesey and his Merry Pranksters, whose antics were recorded by Tom Wolfe in the The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. The Rolling Stones once called his acid “the best LSD in the world … the genuine Owsley.”

He was also an early sound engineer and designed the high-fidelity sound system for the live rock concerts of the Grateful Dead, known as the “wall of sound”. It was essentially a massive public address system made up of 600 speakers that enabled musicians to mix their sound from the stage and reduce distortion. His recordings of Grateful Dead live performances, some having been commercially released, are valued as a documentary of their early music.

Sam Cutler, formerly the tour manager of the Rolling Stones, said of Stanley: “He was a very sophisticated man, an amalgam of scientist and engineer, chemist and artist.”

I remember the first time I took acid and walked outside, and the cars were kissing the parking meters

Stanley was born in Kentucky and studied engineering briefly at the University of Virginia before dropping out and joining the Air Force. In 1958, he moved to California and worked at a wide variety of jobs, before enrolling at the UC at Berkeley in 1963, at a time when drug use was pervasive. He got his first taste of LSD in April 1964 which transformed him. “I remember the first time I took acid and walked outside, and the cars were kissing the parking meters,” he said in an interview with the Rolling Stone Magazine in 2007.

Deciding to provide his own LSD to ensure its quality, Stanley created his own lab to produce it. According to The Washington Post, “Working at first from a makeshift bathroom laboratory in Berkeley, Mr. Stanley produced at least 1 million doses of LSD between 1965 and 1967.” His LSD was widely distributed. The lab was raided and he spent two years in prison.

Stanley moved to Australia in the 1980s when he become convinced the Northern Hemisphere would be destroyed in the coming of a new ice age. He lived in the Australian bush near Cairns, Queensland.


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Owsley Stanley, icon of 1960s counterculture, dies at 76

What Do I Look For In A Long Term Care Insurance Company?}

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What Do I Look For In A Long Term Care Insurance Company?

by

Robert McClure

What do I look for in a good company? You know that you should buy long term care insurance, but where should you look and which company should you consider? A lot of advisers either sell one company’s policy, or they only sell a few policies a year, or truthfully, they really don’t know. So what do you look for in a good company?

We’ve all heard that any insurance policy is only as good as the company standing behind it, but what does that mean? It means that the company must meet the standards of an excellent and superior rating. In order to achieve a rating like this a company must meet certain requirements. Look for:

Financially sound companies Committed companies with a large client base Claims paying history Length of time selling LTC insurance History of rate increases

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They all sort of blend into one another, but let’s look at them in detail:

Financially Sound Companies Check their ratings with the companies that rate the strength of insurance companies. Generally you can get a good flavor of the company’s financial strength by looking at their A.M. Best rating. If you want to back up your findings, you can by looking at Standard & Poor, Moody’s, Fitch, Duff & Phelps or Weiss Research, A.M. Best usually gives a very good overview of the companies strength and the companies don’t have to join the rating service in order to be rated.

Where do I get this? Updates are published monthly, quarterly and annually and can be found in any public library. In addition, you can usually find the ratings on each company’s web site. Do this first and then ask your agent.

Committed Companies With A Large Client Base “The theory of large numbers” works here. The larger the client base the better buffer you have against rate increases. As claims come in the companies need to financially spread these over their client base. If larger claims come in than forecasted then the company has to decide whether to absorb this into its projected cost of business or to pass this along to policy holders in the form of a premium rate increase. Companies who have made a commitment to this line of business normally do not raise premiums. A smaller, uncommitted company may be more inclined to do this.

Where do I get this? The company web site should have their policyholder information readily available. Also the agent representing the company should have their marketing materials, approved by the state where you live, that give policyholder information. In addition, you can get more information from the rating agencies, A.M. Best etc.

Claims Paying History Sometimes a good financial rating may not tell the whole story. Some companies with good ratings have been known to deny or delay paying claims in health insurance. If they use that same practice in other areas, then there is a good chance it will do so for long term care insurance claims. Also, it is important to ask how many claims have been paid since they started selling LTC insurance.

Where do I get this? Call your state insurance department for information on the complaints filed about specific companies. If this isn’t available then sometimes you need to use your own judgment based on size and reputation of the company. A well-known company is less likely to risk bad publicity for this type of action.

Length Of Time Selling LTC Insurance The Company that you choose should have been selling long term care insurance since the early 1990’s. If they haven’t then they probably have not been in the business long enough to have experienced enough claims. Without good claims experience then a company can’t tell if they have set their premium rates correctly. You do not want a company to find out that they set them wrong to begin with and you are the recipient of a “rate adjustment”.

Where do I get this? Once again if you look at the same sources from the above items you will find this information. The state approved company marketing materials will have this information as well as an informed LTC insurance agent. History Of Rate Increases Any company that has ever had a rate increase to its existing clients should not be a company for primary consideration. There are always exceptions to this especially when it comes to health issues and the need for coverage from a company that specializes in these problems.

Where do I get this? You can always contact your state department of insurance and ask them, or ask your agent. However, a sure fire way to do it is to ask your agent for the first page of the long-term care insurance personal worksheet for that particular company. This is a part of their application and will always show their rate increase history.

Finally! Now we know what to look for in a good company. The ideal company will be very large and financially sound. It will have a lot of long term care insurance clients and will have sold these policies since the early 1990’s. In addition it will not have any complaints with your state insurance department concerning the payment of claims. And finally, the ideal company will have a good reputation and will not have ever raised rates to their existing clients in any state.

Before you go out and buy a policy go to

Long Term Care Insurance Guide

and read

Simplifying Long-Term Care Article Source: eArticlesOnline.com

}


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Illinois high schools now required to buy insurance for athletes

Tuesday, August 6, 2013

This past Sunday, Illinois Governor Pat Quinn signed into law a bill known as “Rocky’s Law” that requires Illinois high schools, through the local school district, to buy catastrophic injury insurance up to US$3 million or medical costs for up to five years, whichever one comes first, that covers student athletes. The insurance must cover student athletes while they are competing.

The legislation was named after Rasul “Rocky” Clark. In 2000, the Eisenhower High School football player became paralyzed from the waist down as a result of a tackle during a game. His school based health insurance covered the costs of his medical treatment. A legislator sponsoring the bill noted that the need for this type of insurance is rare. Clark’s mother attended the legislation signing. Her son died last year.

Before parents can claim money from school insurance, they first must pay out US$50,000. Schools have until January 1, 2014 to comply with the law. Schools cannot charge students more than US$5 to defray the cost of insurance. If a school district already requires student to be covered through private health insurance, they are exempted from this law.


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Illinois high schools now required to buy insurance for athletes