Phalaenopsis Orchid Care

By Jordi Ribal

When we take a look at the several orchid species we can easily find at the flower shop, we can be almost sure that one at least of the orchid flowers we have perceived is a Phalaenopsis. They are almost everywhere: in fancy hotels, at some ceremonies, and mothers used to have them on the mothers day. Phalaenopsis are very common and a great amount of orchid growers call them phal orchids.

Phalaenopsis Orchids are also called Phal Orchids by orchids growers. They constitute one of the most popular orchid species nowadays. In fact, chances are that the orchids you watched last week at that fancy hotel or the fair orchids your aunt was given on the mothers day were phalaenopsis (even if you might had never heard about phal orchids up to now!)

Phalaenopsis orchids are the option for many starters that begin to grow their own orchid flowers, because they are very easy to have. We might say that they are, perhaps, the easiest orchid flowers to grow and care for.

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Indeed, lots of people who begin growing their orchids at home or in their gardens prefer phalaenopsis orchids, since this species is not very choosy and they can be grown fairly easily with a little care.

Nonetheless, phal orchids, as other species and types of orchids, request a little care and attention from us. Particularly, we must bear in mind the right amount of water and light they need.

While a good deal of light is crucial for our phalaenopsis orchid to be happy, it should be a shady or indirect light. If we grow our phalaenopsis inside our house, it is recommended to set the plant near a window looking south or east so that it receives the kind of light it requires. At any rate, the phalaenopsis orchid plant must not be exposed to the direct rays of the sun, especially to the hard rays of the afternoon sun.

If it is not possible to place the orchid plant near the windows, no problem, as phalaenopsis orchids have an extraordinary capacity to adapt themselves, so that they can grow healthily under artificial lights. As long as they can have sufficient hours of light, we can place our phalaenopsis orchid under fluorescent or even grow lights. Only make sure that your phalaenopsis is set, at least, at one or two feet away from the light source.

Regarding water, we must know that phalaenopsis orchids like to be watered a little more frequently than other orchid plants like, for example, oncidiums. Howevwe, it is also important for us to know that the orchid media must have very good drainage; otherwise the roots of our orchid could get rot. A good solution is to have our phal orchid sitting in bark and feel the pot from time to time to make sure that it is not getting completely dry. When the bark is nearly dry, it is time for our orchid to get more water.

About the Author: You surely are interested in visiting Jordis site to get more tips and tricks to grow your

phalaenopsis

orchids. Visit also

phalaenopsis-orchidcare.com/

.

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Decorating Your Deck}

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Decorating your Deck

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nomaintenancedecks

Submitted by admin on Fri, 2013-05-03 12:12

Your deck should be a private space to retreat, relax and/or entertain. The decor and furniture you decide to use will create the ambience but must also be both durable and comfortable. As the aim is a relaxing, informal atmosphere, you could opt for a very colorful color scheme or go all natural with cream, white and earthen tints.

Shade and Privacy

In order to truly enjoy your deck, there should be ample shade on those hot summer days. The type of shade you use will play a surprisingly big role in the overall look, so choose wisely.

If you are lucky enough to have a huge tree in your deck area, this alone could already provide enough shade and atmosphere. You could twist fairy lights around its stems and hang lanterns and other decorative objects (such as glass bottles) from its branches for an interesting effect.

For those on a tight budget, a plain outdoor umbrella is a must and you could customize it by painting it yourself, or add crystal beads to create an arty look.

If you are a minimalist, use plain, white canvas for shade and opt for white curtains for extra shade or privacy. If you, however, are a bit more Bohemian, use canvases or streamers in bright colors and plenty of scatter cushions.

The green fingered among us would do well to establish vines to cover the trellises. Using screens is also a good idea for extra privacy and decorative effect. You could either hang tea candles or pot plants for it, or opt for beautiful wrought iron or ornate hand carved screens that are already very decorative pieces.

Plants

Potted plants serve very well as extra decoration on your deck. They create a green space and nothing is as relaxing as nature itself. Paint ordinary terracotta pots in different bright colors for added effect.

Water Feature

A water fountain will bring sounds of tranquility to your deck and is a smart way to block out other noise. They come in all shapes and sizes, so you don’t even need a big deck to accommodate one. From a water garden to water circulating in a pot, a water feature is always soothing to both the eye and the ear.

Lights

Lighting is ever important to create an ambience in the evening and at night. Solar lighting is very cost effective and convenient. As the lights simply come on when it is dark, your deck would always be beautifully lit. Solar garden lights are also built to withstand all weather conditions. Lanterns are also very decorative; you could choose a traditional garden lantern, or use Chinese paper lanterns to shed a colorful but soft glow. Rope lights could be wound around your deck’s railings, overhead trellises or rafters.

Furniture

The furniture you choose to use on your deck will be a focal point and should complement your deck. It is also important that it is durable and wooden furniture should be treated regularly to keep it in a good condition. Wicker, wooden and steel sets with loose cushions is a popular choice for outdoor furniture. Furniture made from pallets is the latest craze, but for optimal comfort, beanbags are a good choice.

Timbertech Railing

, High Performance Decking, Low Maintenance Living, It’s Our Passion! For more info visit – http://www.nomaintenancedecks.com/timbertech-decking-railing/

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Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

A new historic physics record has been set by scientists for exceedingly small writing, opening a new door to computing‘s future. Stanford University physicists have claimed to have written the letters “SU” at sub-atomic size.

Graduate students Christopher Moon, Laila Mattos, Brian Foster and Gabriel Zeltzer, under the direction of assistant professor of physics Hari Manoharan, have produced the world’s smallest lettering, which is approximately 1.5 nanometres tall, using a molecular projector, called Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) to push individual carbon monoxide molecules on a copper or silver sheet surface, based on interference of electron energy states.

A nanometre (Greek: ?????, nanos, dwarf; ?????, metr?, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (i.e., 10-9 m or one millionth of a millimetre), and also equals ten Ångström, an internationally recognized non-SI unit of length. It is often associated with the field of nanotechnology.

“We miniaturised their size so drastically that we ended up with the smallest writing in history,” said Manoharan. “S” and “U,” the two letters in honor of their employer have been reduced so tiny in nanoimprint that if used to print out 32 volumes of an Encyclopedia, 2,000 times, the contents would easily fit on a pinhead.

In the world of downsizing, nanoscribes Manoharan and Moon have proven that information, if reduced in size smaller than an atom, can be stored in more compact form than previously thought. In computing jargon, small sizing results to greater speed and better computer data storage.

“Writing really small has a long history. We wondered: What are the limits? How far can you go? Because materials are made of atoms, it was always believed that if you continue scaling down, you’d end up at that fundamental limit. You’d hit a wall,” said Manoharan.

In writing the letters, the Stanford team utilized an electron‘s unique feature of “pinball table for electrons” — its ability to bounce between different quantum states. In the vibration-proof basement lab of Stanford’s Varian Physics Building, the physicists used a Scanning tunneling microscope in encoding the “S” and “U” within the patterns formed by the electron’s activity, called wave function, arranging carbon monoxide molecules in a very specific pattern on a copper or silver sheet surface.

“Imagine [the copper as] a very shallow pool of water into which we put some rocks [the carbon monoxide molecules]. The water waves scatter and interfere off the rocks, making well defined standing wave patterns,” Manoharan noted. If the “rocks” are placed just right, then the shapes of the waves will form any letters in the alphabet, the researchers said. They used the quantum properties of electrons, rather than photons, as their source of illumination.

According to the study, the atoms were ordered in a circular fashion, with a hole in the middle. A flow of electrons was thereafter fired at the copper support, which resulted into a ripple effect in between the existing atoms. These were pushed aside, and a holographic projection of the letters “SU” became visible in the space between them. “What we did is show that the atom is not the limit — that you can go below that,” Manoharan said.

“It’s difficult to properly express the size of their stacked S and U, but the equivalent would be 0.3 nanometres. This is sufficiently small that you could copy out the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin not just once, but thousands of times over,” Manoharan and his nanohologram collaborator Christopher Moon explained.

The team has also shown the salient features of the holographic principle, a property of quantum gravity theories which resolves the black hole information paradox within string theory. They stacked “S” and the “U” – two layers, or pages, of information — within the hologram.

The team stressed their discovery was concentrating electrons in space, in essence, a wire, hoping such a structure could be used to wire together a super-fast quantum computer in the future. In essence, “these electron patterns can act as holograms, that pack information into subatomic spaces, which could one day lead to unlimited information storage,” the study states.

The “Conclusion” of the Stanford article goes as follows:

According to theory, a quantum state can encode any amount of information (at zero temperature), requiring only sufficiently high bandwidth and time in which to read it out. In practice, only recently has progress been made towards encoding several bits into the shapes of bosonic single-photon wave functions, which has applications in quantum key distribution. We have experimentally demonstrated that 35 bits can be permanently encoded into a time-independent fermionic state, and that two such states can be simultaneously prepared in the same area of space. We have simulated hundreds of stacked pairs of random 7 times 5-pixel arrays as well as various ideas for pathological bit patterns, and in every case the information was theoretically encodable. In all experimental attempts, extending down to the subatomic regime, the encoding was successful and the data were retrieved at 100% fidelity. We believe the limitations on bit size are approxlambda/4, but surprisingly the information density can be significantly boosted by using higher-energy electrons and stacking multiple pages holographically. Determining the full theoretical and practical limits of this technique—the trade-offs between information content (the number of pages and bits per page), contrast (the number of measurements required per bit to overcome noise), and the number of atoms in the hologram—will involve further work.Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, Christopher R. Moon, Laila S. Mattos, Brian K. Foster, Gabriel Zeltzer & Hari C. Manoharan

The team is not the first to design or print small letters, as attempts have been made since as early as 1960. In December 1959, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, who delivered his now-legendary lecture entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” promised new opportunities for those who “thought small.”

Feynman was an American physicist known for the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as work in particle physics (he proposed the parton model).

Feynman offered two challenges at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, held that year in Caltech, offering a $1000 prize to the first person to solve each of them. Both challenges involved nanotechnology, and the first prize was won by William McLellan, who solved the first. The first problem required someone to build a working electric motor that would fit inside a cube 1/64 inches on each side. McLellan achieved this feat by November 1960 with his 250-microgram 2000-rpm motor consisting of 13 separate parts.

In 1985, the prize for the second challenge was claimed by Stanford Tom Newman, who, working with electrical engineering professor Fabian Pease, used electron lithography. He wrote or engraved the first page of Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities, at the required scale, on the head of a pin, with a beam of electrons. The main problem he had before he could claim the prize was finding the text after he had written it; the head of the pin was a huge empty space compared with the text inscribed on it. Such small print could only be read with an electron microscope.

In 1989, however, Stanford lost its record, when Donald Eigler and Erhard Schweizer, scientists at IBM’s Almaden Research Center in San Jose were the first to position or manipulate 35 individual atoms of xenon one at a time to form the letters I, B and M using a STM. The atoms were pushed on the surface of the nickel to create letters 5nm tall.

In 1991, Japanese researchers managed to chisel 1.5 nm-tall characters onto a molybdenum disulphide crystal, using the same STM method. Hitachi, at that time, set the record for the smallest microscopic calligraphy ever designed. The Stanford effort failed to surpass the feat, but it, however, introduced a novel technique. Having equaled Hitachi’s record, the Stanford team went a step further. They used a holographic variation on the IBM technique, for instead of fixing the letters onto a support, the new method created them holographically.

In the scientific breakthrough, the Stanford team has now claimed they have written the smallest letters ever – assembled from subatomic-sized bits as small as 0.3 nanometers, or roughly one third of a billionth of a meter. The new super-mini letters created are 40 times smaller than the original effort and more than four times smaller than the IBM initials, states the paper Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, published online in the journal Nature Nanotechnology. The new sub-atomic size letters are around a third of the size of the atomic ones created by Eigler and Schweizer at IBM.

A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter. Subatomic particles include the atomic constituents electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are composite particles, consisting of quarks.

“Everyone can look around and see the growing amount of information we deal with on a daily basis. All that knowledge is out there. For society to move forward, we need a better way to process it, and store it more densely,” Manoharan said. “Although these projections are stable — they’ll last as long as none of the carbon dioxide molecules move — this technique is unlikely to revolutionize storage, as it’s currently a bit too challenging to determine and create the appropriate pattern of molecules to create a desired hologram,” the authors cautioned. Nevertheless, they suggest that “the practical limits of both the technique and the data density it enables merit further research.”

In 2000, it was Hari Manoharan, Christopher Lutz and Donald Eigler who first experimentally observed quantum mirage at the IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California. In physics, a quantum mirage is a peculiar result in quantum chaos. Their study in a paper published in Nature, states they demonstrated that the Kondo resonance signature of a magnetic adatom located at one focus of an elliptically shaped quantum corral could be projected to, and made large at the other focus of the corral.


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Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall

U.S. develops parks above highways

Tuesday, February 20, 2007

In big cities, finding land for new parks is less of an expedition than an all-out land-rights battle with property owners. But some cities across the U.S. have found a slightly easier way to add to their greenspace. By utilizing the state’s air rights to the space above freeways that run below at ground level, cities can acquire 5 or 10 acres of parkspace essentially for free, such Freeway Park which occupies 5.5 acres above a freeway in downtown Seattle.

Of course, this free “land” is actually nothing more than open air above a freeway, requiring cities to pay the high construction costs of capping the roadway with land.

Such projects are currently being planned in St. Louis, Cincinnati, Dallas and San Diego. A recent article in Governing Magazine looks at more than two dozen highway deck parks that have been built or are under construction in the U.S. The article finds that even though the price of constructing parks on top of freeways can rise upwards of $500 per square foot, property values and local development boom once they are completed.


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U.S. develops parks above highways

Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

A new historic physics record has been set by scientists for exceedingly small writing, opening a new door to computing‘s future. Stanford University physicists have claimed to have written the letters “SU” at sub-atomic size.

Graduate students Christopher Moon, Laila Mattos, Brian Foster and Gabriel Zeltzer, under the direction of assistant professor of physics Hari Manoharan, have produced the world’s smallest lettering, which is approximately 1.5 nanometres tall, using a molecular projector, called Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) to push individual carbon monoxide molecules on a copper or silver sheet surface, based on interference of electron energy states.

A nanometre (Greek: ?????, nanos, dwarf; ?????, metr?, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (i.e., 10-9 m or one millionth of a millimetre), and also equals ten Ångström, an internationally recognized non-SI unit of length. It is often associated with the field of nanotechnology.

“We miniaturised their size so drastically that we ended up with the smallest writing in history,” said Manoharan. “S” and “U,” the two letters in honor of their employer have been reduced so tiny in nanoimprint that if used to print out 32 volumes of an Encyclopedia, 2,000 times, the contents would easily fit on a pinhead.

In the world of downsizing, nanoscribes Manoharan and Moon have proven that information, if reduced in size smaller than an atom, can be stored in more compact form than previously thought. In computing jargon, small sizing results to greater speed and better computer data storage.

“Writing really small has a long history. We wondered: What are the limits? How far can you go? Because materials are made of atoms, it was always believed that if you continue scaling down, you’d end up at that fundamental limit. You’d hit a wall,” said Manoharan.

In writing the letters, the Stanford team utilized an electron‘s unique feature of “pinball table for electrons” — its ability to bounce between different quantum states. In the vibration-proof basement lab of Stanford’s Varian Physics Building, the physicists used a Scanning tunneling microscope in encoding the “S” and “U” within the patterns formed by the electron’s activity, called wave function, arranging carbon monoxide molecules in a very specific pattern on a copper or silver sheet surface.

“Imagine [the copper as] a very shallow pool of water into which we put some rocks [the carbon monoxide molecules]. The water waves scatter and interfere off the rocks, making well defined standing wave patterns,” Manoharan noted. If the “rocks” are placed just right, then the shapes of the waves will form any letters in the alphabet, the researchers said. They used the quantum properties of electrons, rather than photons, as their source of illumination.

According to the study, the atoms were ordered in a circular fashion, with a hole in the middle. A flow of electrons was thereafter fired at the copper support, which resulted into a ripple effect in between the existing atoms. These were pushed aside, and a holographic projection of the letters “SU” became visible in the space between them. “What we did is show that the atom is not the limit — that you can go below that,” Manoharan said.

“It’s difficult to properly express the size of their stacked S and U, but the equivalent would be 0.3 nanometres. This is sufficiently small that you could copy out the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin not just once, but thousands of times over,” Manoharan and his nanohologram collaborator Christopher Moon explained.

The team has also shown the salient features of the holographic principle, a property of quantum gravity theories which resolves the black hole information paradox within string theory. They stacked “S” and the “U” – two layers, or pages, of information — within the hologram.

The team stressed their discovery was concentrating electrons in space, in essence, a wire, hoping such a structure could be used to wire together a super-fast quantum computer in the future. In essence, “these electron patterns can act as holograms, that pack information into subatomic spaces, which could one day lead to unlimited information storage,” the study states.

The “Conclusion” of the Stanford article goes as follows:

According to theory, a quantum state can encode any amount of information (at zero temperature), requiring only sufficiently high bandwidth and time in which to read it out. In practice, only recently has progress been made towards encoding several bits into the shapes of bosonic single-photon wave functions, which has applications in quantum key distribution. We have experimentally demonstrated that 35 bits can be permanently encoded into a time-independent fermionic state, and that two such states can be simultaneously prepared in the same area of space. We have simulated hundreds of stacked pairs of random 7 times 5-pixel arrays as well as various ideas for pathological bit patterns, and in every case the information was theoretically encodable. In all experimental attempts, extending down to the subatomic regime, the encoding was successful and the data were retrieved at 100% fidelity. We believe the limitations on bit size are approxlambda/4, but surprisingly the information density can be significantly boosted by using higher-energy electrons and stacking multiple pages holographically. Determining the full theoretical and practical limits of this technique—the trade-offs between information content (the number of pages and bits per page), contrast (the number of measurements required per bit to overcome noise), and the number of atoms in the hologram—will involve further work.Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, Christopher R. Moon, Laila S. Mattos, Brian K. Foster, Gabriel Zeltzer & Hari C. Manoharan

The team is not the first to design or print small letters, as attempts have been made since as early as 1960. In December 1959, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, who delivered his now-legendary lecture entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” promised new opportunities for those who “thought small.”

Feynman was an American physicist known for the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as work in particle physics (he proposed the parton model).

Feynman offered two challenges at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, held that year in Caltech, offering a $1000 prize to the first person to solve each of them. Both challenges involved nanotechnology, and the first prize was won by William McLellan, who solved the first. The first problem required someone to build a working electric motor that would fit inside a cube 1/64 inches on each side. McLellan achieved this feat by November 1960 with his 250-microgram 2000-rpm motor consisting of 13 separate parts.

In 1985, the prize for the second challenge was claimed by Stanford Tom Newman, who, working with electrical engineering professor Fabian Pease, used electron lithography. He wrote or engraved the first page of Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities, at the required scale, on the head of a pin, with a beam of electrons. The main problem he had before he could claim the prize was finding the text after he had written it; the head of the pin was a huge empty space compared with the text inscribed on it. Such small print could only be read with an electron microscope.

In 1989, however, Stanford lost its record, when Donald Eigler and Erhard Schweizer, scientists at IBM’s Almaden Research Center in San Jose were the first to position or manipulate 35 individual atoms of xenon one at a time to form the letters I, B and M using a STM. The atoms were pushed on the surface of the nickel to create letters 5nm tall.

In 1991, Japanese researchers managed to chisel 1.5 nm-tall characters onto a molybdenum disulphide crystal, using the same STM method. Hitachi, at that time, set the record for the smallest microscopic calligraphy ever designed. The Stanford effort failed to surpass the feat, but it, however, introduced a novel technique. Having equaled Hitachi’s record, the Stanford team went a step further. They used a holographic variation on the IBM technique, for instead of fixing the letters onto a support, the new method created them holographically.

In the scientific breakthrough, the Stanford team has now claimed they have written the smallest letters ever – assembled from subatomic-sized bits as small as 0.3 nanometers, or roughly one third of a billionth of a meter. The new super-mini letters created are 40 times smaller than the original effort and more than four times smaller than the IBM initials, states the paper Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, published online in the journal Nature Nanotechnology. The new sub-atomic size letters are around a third of the size of the atomic ones created by Eigler and Schweizer at IBM.

A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter. Subatomic particles include the atomic constituents electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are composite particles, consisting of quarks.

“Everyone can look around and see the growing amount of information we deal with on a daily basis. All that knowledge is out there. For society to move forward, we need a better way to process it, and store it more densely,” Manoharan said. “Although these projections are stable — they’ll last as long as none of the carbon dioxide molecules move — this technique is unlikely to revolutionize storage, as it’s currently a bit too challenging to determine and create the appropriate pattern of molecules to create a desired hologram,” the authors cautioned. Nevertheless, they suggest that “the practical limits of both the technique and the data density it enables merit further research.”

In 2000, it was Hari Manoharan, Christopher Lutz and Donald Eigler who first experimentally observed quantum mirage at the IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California. In physics, a quantum mirage is a peculiar result in quantum chaos. Their study in a paper published in Nature, states they demonstrated that the Kondo resonance signature of a magnetic adatom located at one focus of an elliptically shaped quantum corral could be projected to, and made large at the other focus of the corral.


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Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall

Top Three Reasons To Buy A Used Car

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By Alex Holmes

In today’s world of exorbitantly expensive cars, buying “pre owned” is a really viable option to consider. Below there are top three reasons why it’s better to buy a used car than a new one.

Price: This one is the most obvious factor. Buying a new vehicle, especially today, is vastly more expensive than buying used. The average new vehicle is going to be at least $20,000. A fully functional vehicle of the same type that is 5 years old may be nearly half that amount.

Selection: Depending on what type of vehicle you are after, as well as the time of year you choose to buy, selection may be a factor. When a model first comes out, there will probably not be as many cars of that type to choose from. In addition, it this is a particularly popular vehicle like the Honda S2000 sports car was, the dealer may be charging an extra fee in order for you to purchase the vehicle, due to its relative unavailability. These large surcharges can add a great deal to the final price if the market will bear it.

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The dealer decides how much above the MSRP (manufacturers suggested retail price) they will sell the car for. In the case of the Honda S2000, people wanted them so badly they were actually bidding the price up just to get the few available cars. The dealer, of course, profited greatly from this. If you wait until a model has been out for awhile the selection will be much better. In addition, if you wait until September, when dealers are trying to move out the remaining stock before winter, the selection will be still better.

Short term/long term value: When buying a new vehicle, most people can only see its shiny newness and how great it will look in their driveway. They don’t usually consider at the time of purchase how long they plan to keep the vehicle. With today s high prices and typical long financing terms, this is really important to think about. If the vehicle you are buying is something you plan on keeping for at least 5 to 7 years, and you finance it for only 48 months, then you will at least have a few years without car payments before it is time to start thinking about another vehicle. If you plan on only keeping it for 2 to 3 years however, you may have an unpleasant experience occur. This experience is called being ”upside down” in your vehicle.

Most don’t know that a new vehicle’s worth drops very dramatically after you drive it home. Unless you put a substantial amount of money down at the beginning, you may owe more money on it then it is worth for the first few years. If that becomes the case, you have a big problem replacing it if you go through a dealer. Keep in mind that most new car dealer’s make a lot of their profits on trade in’s. If they only give you S2000 for your vehicle and then sell it to a wholesaler for $3,500, they just made a fast $1,500 at your expense. Then the wholesaler may clean it up real nice and sell it for $5,500 taking another profit from your misfortune.

All these factors can be applied to a used vehicle as well, but the amounts would probably be cut in half so you would not be hurt as bad financially.

Back to the idea that you are buying someone else’s headache if you buy used. While this can be true, there are procedures you can use and precautions you can take to minimize this sort of thing. In the next couple of chapters we will discuss how to apply them in your vehicle shopping!

About the Author: Alex Holmes. Visit an automotive marketplace to sell or buy car.

Source: isnare.com

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Best Roofing Services In London}

Best roofing services in London

by

Making our house look better every day is one of our dearest passions. We love our house and always try to make it look better and elegant. Whatever time one gets after work, is usually spent on keeping he house clean and beautiful. We take special care about its interiors, the furniture and the various other showpieces that enhance the looks of our house. And so, during the construction of our small heaven on earth, we make sure that every little thing used in it is of premium quality so that the beauty of our house is not hindered in the long run. Thus, special attention is given to the roofing systems of our house.

Roofing is the most essential part during the maintenance of a house. No one would like to have a leaking roof that would ruin the entire beauty of house. The beautifully painted walls, the decorative and the other furniture pieces are all useless if the roofing work is not done properly. The minutest carelessness in roofing the house will turn your heaven into a terror with leakages at the various places. Good roofing is not only important for the residential places but in fact is more important in the huge industrial areas. Under a single huge roof, there are chances of having the various air conditioners and other similar systems that help in making the environment in the industries more relaxing for the workers. Thus, the cost of repairing the roofs due to leakages can be very high and so one should always get the best roofing services possible. Apart from the cost, these can also prove to be very dangerous as there can be various types of accidents possible with the leaking roofs. Thus roofing in London is a business where the roofers take special care of the safety of people and also ensure the safety of your property for a long run.

Finding the best roofers London

is not such a difficult task as there are many roofing services in London that promise to provide leak free roofs for your house and also the industries. You will find the best services for flat proofing in London for your beautiful flat and thus ensure the long lasting beauty as well as the security of your house. Thus, no matter if you want the services of the best roofer in London for your resident, industry or any other commercial construct, you will find the best service with the highest security.

For more insights and further information about

Roofing services London

visit our site http://www.cfir.co.uk/

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How the Army Corps of Engineers closed one New Orleans breach

Friday, September 9, 2005

New Orleans, Louisiana — After Category 4 storm Hurricane Katrina slammed into New Orleans, on the night before August 29, 2005, several flood control constructions failed. Much of the city flooded through the openings. One of these was the flood wall forming one side of the 17th Street Canal, near Lake Pontchartrain. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is the primary agency for engineering support during such emergencies. A USACE team was assessing the situation in New Orleans on the 29th, water flow was stopped September 2nd, and the breach was closed on September 5th.

Contents

  • 1 Background
  • 2 August 27: Before the storm
  • 3 August 29: Day of the storm
  • 4 August 30: Flood
  • 5 August 31: Recovery begins
  • 6 September 1: Construction
  • 7 September 2: Water flow stopped
  • 8 September 3
  • 9 September 4: Almost done
  • 10 September 5: Breach closed
  • 11 September 6: Pumping and moving on
  • 12 See also
  • 13 Sources

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How the Army Corps of Engineers closed one New Orleans breach

How the Army Corps of Engineers closed one New Orleans breach

Friday, September 9, 2005

New Orleans, Louisiana — After Category 4 storm Hurricane Katrina slammed into New Orleans, on the night before August 29, 2005, several flood control constructions failed. Much of the city flooded through the openings. One of these was the flood wall forming one side of the 17th Street Canal, near Lake Pontchartrain. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is the primary agency for engineering support during such emergencies. A USACE team was assessing the situation in New Orleans on the 29th, water flow was stopped September 2nd, and the breach was closed on September 5th.

Contents

  • 1 Background
  • 2 August 27: Before the storm
  • 3 August 29: Day of the storm
  • 4 August 30: Flood
  • 5 August 31: Recovery begins
  • 6 September 1: Construction
  • 7 September 2: Water flow stopped
  • 8 September 3
  • 9 September 4: Almost done
  • 10 September 5: Breach closed
  • 11 September 6: Pumping and moving on
  • 12 See also
  • 13 Sources

Posted in Real Estate | Comments Off on
How the Army Corps of Engineers closed one New Orleans breach