Information On Medieval Blacksmiths

By Chris Comstock

Medieval Blacksmiths has as much influence on shaping the age they lived in as they did on the metals they worked on. Medieval Europe was the time of the first great advancements in science and technology and new practices in farming, fabrication, construction and fighting were constantly being introduced. None of these would have been possible without the blacksmith.

The medieval blacksmith first came into being as a part time metal worker. In small settlements scattered all over the continent, a person with the right physique was chosen, or volunteered, to do his best in heating and shaping iron to meet the needs of the community her lived in. This was part time work to be done only when the primary duties were completed. However, as the part time iron worker’s skills kept improving, the demand for these goods also grew and so producing and selling metal work became a profitable profession.

As the settlements grew in size and more blacksmiths set up shop, the first guilds came into being. There guilds where more than just trade unions. They set the basics standards that the blacksmiths would work to and allowed the sharing of knowledge among the members. Although most tradesmen guilds of the time were secretive, the blacksmiths guilds were more so than most because theirs was a trade that not everyone could undertake and which also required specialized knowledge which was kept closely guarded. This gave the medieval blacksmith an important and powerful position in the society of the times. Blacksmiths had to be treated with respect or else the house builder would find his nails bending or the knight his sword breaking in battle.

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The guilds adopted the apprentice approach to teaching young men the trade. Boy of 15 or so would be apprenticed to a master blacksmith and would live with him as part student and part servant. The apprentice would do all the cleaning and menial chores in both the forge and, if need be, in the blacksmith’s home. He would normally live and sleep in the forge itself and would be responsible for its upkeep, cleanliness and ensuring the forge was lit and ready to use. Initially he would just observe the master blacksmith at work but slowly, as time passed would be allowed to participate in minor aspects of the forging process until such time as he could perform simple blacksmith jobs on his own. Once the master blacksmith was confident of the apprentice’ skills, he would be given more complex work to do, always under the supervision of his master, until such time as the master was satisfied that the apprentice had learned all that the master could teach, at which time he was allowed to go forth and set up his own forge.

The blacksmith was an important member of society and in times of civil unrest or war was allowed to live and work within the premises of the local castle, which was the most secure place. The army needed it armaments and having their blacksmiths captured or killed by the enemy meant that the army’s ability to fight was severely limited. Blacksmithing was not a glamorous profession in medieval times unlike the writer, artist or knight; but his contribution to the society he lived in was as much, if not more, than those to whom he supplied his goods.

About the Author: Go to Blacksmith Zone to get your free ebook on Blacksmithing at

. Blacksmith Zone also has information on Blacksmithing, Blacksmith Tools and lots of Blacksmith Tips that can be found at

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Still no action in standoff in Ontario town

Monday, April 17, 2006

Seven weeks after citizens of the Six Nations of the Grand River reserve repossessed land near Caledonia, Ontario, on February 28, the Ontario Provincial Police, who have authority from a court to arrest the protesters for contempt of court, have yet to act.

On April 11, more than 50 police cruisers, two paddy wagons, and several vans gathered outside an abandoned school on Unity Road in Caledonia. However, reports from last night are that visible police presence is minimal, with just a few police cruisers parked down the road from the protest site.

Before the site was blocked, Henco Industries had begun construction on 10 luxury homes out of a total of 71 scheduled to be built as part of the $6 million Douglas Creek Estates subdivision.

The tract of land under dispute was registered as a land claim by the Six Nations Band Council in 1987 but its status has yet to be settled. The land originally made up part of a large land grant given in 1784 to the Six Nations for services rendered during the American War of Independence. The government and the developer claim that the Six Nations surrendered title in 1841, but the Band disputes this.

The protesters are demanding a nation-to-nation dialogue with the Canadian government and continue to call for a peaceful resolution. Some protesters, however, have stated that if the OPP forcefully try to remove them, they will defend their land with force.

“If they break the peace, we’ll do what we have to do,” said protester Dick Hill. “Things are very tense. We are trying to defend our lands, which were taken from us. Every time we try to stand up for who we are and what we are, they come and drag us away.”

An injunction was issued to the development company a month ago that allowed for the protesters to be removed. Police have not enforced the injunction.

However, David Ramsay, Ontario’s Aboriginal Affairs Minister, said that the province was going to have a meeting with both protesters and developers in an attempt to address their concerns.

“This is a very serious situation. I have to be very hopeful that we’re going to see a peaceful end to this situation. We think we can resolve this by negotiating, and by talking so that’s what we’re doing,” added Ramsay.

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Still no action in standoff in Ontario town



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Thirteen arrested in connection with Baghdad bombings

Monday, December 14, 2009

An Iraqi Interior Ministry official today said that thirteen people are in custody in connection with last Tuesday’s coordinated bombings in Baghdad that killed 127 people and wounded 400.

The announcement of the arrests came as lawmakers again questioned officials about security lapses in the capital, where there have been three massive attacks since the beginning of August. It was also revealed that the US military had warned of an attack on Tuesday, but Iraqi officials say there was not time to act.

On Saturday, Iraq’s Interior Minister Jawad al-Bolani had stated that security forces had prior warning of Tuesday’s bombings. He said bureaucracy and a lack of cooperation between government ministries were to blame for security gaps and the inability to stop the attacks.

Of the arrests, al-Bolani said: “There are thirteen coffins waiting for criminals implicated in Tuesday attacks, and those criminals will be tried and convicted.” The suspects are thought to have ties with al-Qaida.

An al-Qaida-linked group known as the Islamic State of Iraq has claimed responsibility for Tuesday’s bombings and warned of more attacks.

Violence in Iraq has declined in recent months, but militants have continued sporadic attacks. On Sunday, Iraqi police say three car bombings in other parts of the country killed at least three people and wounded more than 30 others.

Officials said one car bomb exploded near Fallujah, killing two people and wounding at least seven. Police say the bomb appeared to target a senior security officer, Colonel Saad al-Shimari, who escaped unharmed. At least one child was among the victims in the attack. Another car bomb blast in Fallujah on Sunday wounded at least five people near the home of an official.

In the northern city of Mosul, a car bomb exploded near a group of Iraqi army recruits, killing one person and wounding 19 others.

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Mri Parts Replacement And Service At Directmedparts

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MRI Parts Replacement and Service at Directmedparts


Johan Burger

DirectMed Parts is your one source multi-modality vendor for medical imaging replacement parts, repairs, systems and field service solutions. We understand the value of responsiveness, honesty and exceptional service to our old and new customers.

Together we can expertly manage your parts needs, coil repair and service on a wide range of MRI and CT systems. Directmedparts offers CT & MRI parts; MRI coils, new & used CT tubes, MRI cold heads & compressors from GE, Siemens, Philips and Toshiba including replacement parts. We provide facility of:

Replacement of MRI & CT Parts

Replacement of MRI & CT Coils

Service Solution


Replacement of MRI & CT Parts:

DirectMed has a full line of tested MRI and CT parts, ready to be installed. Our team is available around the clock to ensure your satisfaction. DirectMed carries a line of replacement CT tubes. Our quality is unmatched, all equipment is fully tested prior to shipment. Your satisfaction is number one. We provide different MRI parts like:


Part Number: 2100968-2

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Description: 2100968-2 Compatible with GE 1.5T SIGNA MRI. IN STOCK – TESTED – READY TO SHIP

Manufacturer: GE

-Product Name :AP BOARD DUAL

Part Number: 2222532-5

Description: GE AP BOARD DUAL 2222532-5 Compatible with GE 1.5T SIGNA MRI. IN STOCK – TESTED – READY TO SHIP

Manufacturer: GE

Replacement of MRI & CT Coils:

Our coils are fully refurbished and tested prior to shipment. We make sure every step of our QA process is fulfilled prior to shipping. Your coil will arrive looking like new. We understand the importance of you receiving your parts on time and in functional condition. It is for this reason that we ensure the parts you receive are both tested and have gone through our QA process prior to being shipped. Let DirectMed help you minimize downtime and equipment costs.

-Product Name :1.5T SPECTRO FLEX COIL

Part Number: 2219090

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Part Number: 2298043-2

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Part Number: 2377425-2

Description: Refurbished 1.5T HD 8-Channel Body Array Coil – Great Condition – Ready to ship. Please contact for more info.

Manufacturer: GE

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Need service solution? Look no further. DirectMed has OEM trained MRI and CT service engineers at your service. We make every effort to ensure your experience is a good one. DirectMed is a leading provider of MRI injector Units from all manufacturers. Our refurbishing process exceeds any third parties capabilities. We provide you the cost effective service for your MRI Coils and Parts, CT Tubes and Scanner and other Medical Imaging equipments.


DirectMed can repair your GE and Siemens RF, System, Gradient and Magnet level components. Our repair process is unmatched within the industry. DirectMed repairs MRI coils from many manufacturers, including; MRI Devices, Invivo, USAI, Medical Advances and many more. Our services include electronic and cosmetic repairs. Each coil is tested thoroughly prior to shipment.

At DirectMed Parts, We make it our top priority to ensure your equipment arrives safe and functional. DirectMed uses todays top of the line shipping techniques and systems to prepare your item for shipment.

Mr. Johan Burger is an expert in MRI and CT Equipment parts Advisor. He has years of experience servicing the medical imaging equipment, parts and service market. He works with DirectMed Parts. He writes about various

MRI Parts


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Ford’s US auto sales spike, surpassing GM

Wednesday, March 3, 2010

Ford Motor Company said on Tuesday that its sales in the United States rose 43% in February compared to the same period last year, as the automaker outsold rivals Toyota and General Motors.

The strength of our new products … are resonating with customers

Ford said that total sales improved to 142,285 units, compared to 141,951 units sold by GM. Additionally, Ford said that its share of the total US car market rose to 17%, up from 14% a year ago. The increase was better than analysts had predicted, and Ford’s stock rose to a five-year high in morning trading, before declining later in the day. Ford’s sales were significantly influenced by a 74% increase in fleet sales to businesses. Rental car agencies alone accounted for around 30,000 units sold. Sales to retail consumers increased only 28%.

The increases were led by sales of two sedans, the Fusion and Taurus, which rose 166.5 and 93.3% respectively, although sales of other models such as SUVs and pickup trucks also increased. Both models were significantly redesigned last year, and analysts said that improved quality from such cars were driving the increases.

Other companies also reported February sales today, nearly all reporting sales gains as well, although none as large as those of Ford. Toyota was the sole exception to the sales gains, as their sales declined 8.7%, as the company was faced with a global recall during the month that led to a temporary stoppage of production for some models.

“The strength of our new products … are resonating with customers,” said Ken Czubay, Ford’s vice president of sales and marketing. However, he believed that traditional Toyota customers were not buying rival autos, but rather awaiting the results from the recalls.

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Australian Federal Court orders ISPs to block copyright infringing sites

Saturday, December 17, 2016

On Thursday, the Australian Federal Court ordered Internet service providers to block websites which infringe copyright. The court required five websites be blocked — Pirate Bay, Torrentz, isoHunt, Torrenthound, and SolarMovie.

In the first case of site blocking under new Australian legislation, the court asked the companies to block access to these websites within fifteen business days. The ISPs are free to choose the method of blocking; options include DNS blocking, blocking IP addresses and URL blocking.

The court has asked the copyright holders to pay up to A$50 to the ISPs for each domain to be blocked. After successful blocking of these websites they are to be replaced by a landing page showing an “access denied” message as well as a notice the website “infringes or facilitates the infringement of copyright.”

Peter Tonagh, the chief executive of copyright holders Foxtel said, “This judgment is a major step in both directly combating piracy and educating the public that accessing content through these sites is not OK, in fact it is theft”.

Graham Bruke, co-executive of the other copyright holder in the case, Village Roadshow, in October called people who pirate the copyrighted material “leeches and thieves” and compared them to heroin sellers. Foxtel and Village Roadshow plan to block over 50 websites.

The operators of SolarMovie and the torrent websites did not attend the court hearing.

Various Linux distributions like Debian, Ubuntu and OpenSUSE allow users to download the freely licensed operating system through torrents.

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Australian Federal Court orders ISPs to block copyright infringing sites

Tips On Birthday Celebration}

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Submitted by: Kate Rogers

It is assumed that carousing Birthdays in Europe commenced with the originally Iranian cult of Mithras in Roman Empire. It was very rare during the middle ages but with the advent of reformation it was resurrected.

A happy Birthday song is conventionally sung to accolade the person celebrating his birthday. The carnival is followed by the blowing out of candles and then slicing the highly decorated birthday cake. The rite of blowing out of candles has got a significance which is believed by most people. It is a means of wish fulfillment. If all the candles can be blown out with one breath then the wish is believed to come true. The birthday cake is very nicely decorated and it is garlanded with lit candles. The singing of birthday song can be performed at any place, even in restaurants at the delivery of the dessert or the very special birthday cake.

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Numeral candles are also used where the number of candles may prove to be a fire hazard. Numeral candles means the shape of the candle will be numeral, for e. g. if the persons age is fifty then instead of lighting fifty candles only a numeral 5 followed by a numeral 0 will be placed on the cake.On Birthday, the honored person gets a hug, a call or letters from his friends and family. Kids usually enjoy this special day by playing games such as Pin the Tail on the Donkey, Musical Chairs and hitting Piatas. Adults prefer to celebrate their birthday privately in some restaurants by having a dinner with their friends.

A tradition of Surprise Parties is also popular. The Birthday boy or the Birthday girl receives no greetings from his/her family at the beginning of the day because a surprise party has been organized to delight the honored person.There is also a practice of treating friends and that is not always compensated by gifts. Another custom which was commonly practiced by the girls in 1950s and 60s in their school days was receiving of a bouquet of flower, ornamented with inexpensive gifts such as candies, lollipops, bubble gums, sugar cubes, lemon drops and many more on their Birthday depending on their age.

Birthday bumps are also eminent; here the Birthday boy/ girl is lifted on air by his/ her friends and family and then placed on the ground lightly so that they dont get hurt. The number of bumps equals the age that the honored person reaches on his Birthday. Birthday beats and Birthday bashes are also practiced on this day which is similar to the Birthday bumps, that is the Birthday person gets a number of friendly thumps on his arm or back corresponding to the age he has reached.

About the Author: Kate Rogers specializes on birthdays,Birthday party ideas and everything on Birthdays .She writes for

She can be found at at\”


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Diary Of A Real Psychic Medium Medium Phone Reader}

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Submitted by: Rachels Saxon

Finding out about a psychic medium in more detail rather than the usual run of the mill profile shown on websites can be interesting, here we detail the workings of a reader from Simply Psychics, whose name is Lucy.

Here, I tell you about my readings, & how I do them.

The most important thing i do with my readings is right at the start of the call – this is when you must make a good connection with the client, usually in a light-hearted way to make the person is relaxed.

I then establish the nature of the persons call. Usually i make the link with the cards and ask my guides and my helpers to come forward. I try to see into all areas of the situation sometimes even going back into the callers past because sometimes the past can affect the present and the future. I am empathic and i try to see if there is a clear way forward and i have learned to give what Ive been given from my guides and helpers and to believe in the information Ive received.

Relationships became my specialty over a period of time- its the main reason a lot of people call. I find they need plenty of understanding and re-assurance and sometimes i just know what’s ahead of them. On occasion the caller knows what Im saying is right but sometimes they arent ready to hear yet and these are the difficult ones.

What do callers want to know?

A huge variety of things from basic re-assurance – finding a lost object (which i can do) & more in-depth readings about their whole life or just a general over-view in the direction they are going.

Career is nearly as popular as relationship readings. Also house-moves and the area they are considering moving to, plus timings on when the house move will also happen.

Do callers ring when they have fallen out with their partner?

Very much so as they need advice about when they will get further contact and i can on occasion be totally correct with timings – I know because my callers return to me for more validations and updates. Sometimes when a caller rings after they have fallen out with there partner its not the right time for a reading because you are dealing with a very upset person. On occasion I have asked them to

call back when they have calmed down a little but this does only happen very rarely.

How do I advise or help callers?

Well in many ways, with honesty, I am also empathic and basically I want them to go away feeling better and with more hope than they had before they rang. I look at every situation individually and everything is “tailor-made” for that caller.

Do you give specifics, names etc?

For a very long time my spirit guides always gave me the persons middle name – especially when the person they had asked about had passed. As I have become a little more experienced with time, I hear clairaudiently and i have now given initials and the persons name which very often prove to be correct. I hear it in my mind-set, i cant really work out how this happens only that i have learned to go with it.

Do your love predictions come true?

Well apparently they do as i do have many returning clients and people have told me they do and that i have helped them so i am learning to believe in myself.

Do your love predictions come true?

An actual friend of mine comes to me regularly for readings. Her relationship – a long one has been in difficulties on at least two occasions. On both occasions i have saved the relationship. I have done this by listening to my friend and linking in psychically to advise her to not leave her partner. She listened to this advice and the relationship of some years is now going strong – it just hits a rocky patch from time to time and with everything people need re-assurance.

Are the majority of callers about love and relationship matters or are there other kinds?

Well, i think of myself as an all-rounder – this is because i am clairsentient, clairaudient, clairvoyant, medium and a psychic. I hear, see into the future and i receive spirit. I am a direct channeller of spirit and the Angel realm.

I love doing mediumship readings where i give validation from clients loved ones; i love to teach/instruct about spiritual matters, as i feel all knowledge should be shared. I can also do remote viewing, seeing places, and also seeing objects people might have lost. Another of my skills is that i link into animal energies, especially, lost cats, horses and dogs as i have a West Highland white terrier myself and am an avid dog lover.

About the Author: Rachel Saxon writes for the metaphysical industry & is a reiki master. Recommended websites for further research




Further information



Psychic Directory


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Suspect in Oklahoma girl’s murder blogged about depression, “dangerously weird” fantasies

Monday, April 17, 2006

Kevin Ray Underwood, the suspect in the murder of 10-year-old Jamie Rose Bolin of Purcell, Oklahoma, reportedly kept a weblog in which he joked about cannibalism, discussed the effects of not taking his prescribed medicine, and talked about “dangerously weird” fantasies.

Underwood was arrested Friday after investigators searched his apartment and found Jamie’s body in a plastic bin in his bedroom closet. Also reportedly found in his apartment were barbecue skewers and meat tenderizer, which law enforcement officials believe he intended to use to eat the girl’s flesh.

People who knew Underwood reported that he was a relatively unassuming man, seemingly trustworthy. His mother described him as “a wonderful boy” and said of Jamie, “I would like to be able to tell her family how sorry we are. I just feel so terrible.”

In the profile of his blog, entitled “Strange Things are Afoot at the Circle K” ([1]), Underwood described himself as “Single, bored, and lonely, but other than that, pretty happy.” Also on his profile page, he poses the question, “If you were a cannibal, what would you wear to dinner?” and answers, “The skin of last night’s main course.”

In an entry dated September 8, 2005, Underwood reportedly described 1998 as “the year that a large part of me died” and “the longest year of my life.” He reported losing contact with most of his friends, making an online acquaintance only to lose her again, and suffering panic attacks from being around people at college. Two of his friends also were involved in a car accident, one fatally injured.

He reported in that entry that in the last year he found himself becoming more and more detached from the world, never leaving his apartment except to go to work or his parents’ apartment. In an entry dated September 24, 2004, he reported that his fantasies were “just getting weirder and weirder. Dangerously weird. If people knew the kinds of things I think about anymore, I’d probably be locked away. No probably about it, I know I would be.”

In an entry dated February 4, 2006, he said that he had hardly left the apartment in almost two months, and that “a week or so ago, I spent my day off sitting here at the computer, barely moving from the chair, for 14 hours.”

His last blog entry was dated Thursday, April 13, 2006, one day after authorities believe Underwood killed Jamie Bolin.

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Suspect in Oklahoma girl’s murder blogged about depression, “dangerously weird” fantasies