What You Should Know About Young And Reckless Shirts And How To Get Them Cheap?}

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Submitted by: Calvin Washin

If there is one genre of music that has attracted many fans, it has to be hip hop. This genre of music has become so popular that everyone is listening to it and they have also adopted its mode of dress. Many youngsters have been influenced by their hip hop idols so much so that they not only emulate their way of talking, but also the way they dress. One thing you may be familiar with about hip hop clothing is that it has everything to do with wearing loose apparel or incorporating casual dress with baggy jeans and funky t-shirts. Of course, there is not much difference between the jeans you come across in the stores and the hip hop inspired jeans. The main difference is in the colors, the design as well as the cuts.

What really marks the difference between hip hop clothing and other styles are the t-shirts. Some of the most popular designs you will find are Young and Reckless shirts. The design of these shirts gives an individual a typical hip hop look. According to designers, this type of t-shirt was inspired by street vibe and culture. The main aim was to create a brand that would not only be representative of so-called street culture, but would also be different from other mainstream brands.

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A testament to the popularity of Young and Reckless shirts is the fact that there are over three thousand stores selling them. What is more? There are numerous online stores and companies that stock them too. Alternatively, anyone looking for these shirts can always get them from the manufacturers online store. This can also give you the opportunity to view the various designs that are available from the same company.

Many people have actually thought of Young and Reckless shirts as a label for men only. This is not the case as they are suitable for women as well. This is especially true for plus-sized women. Either way, the loose fit is bound to give slim people a bigger look, while making plump people look a bit slimmer. Of course, it is important to pay attention to the colors of the shirts you like. It is important that the colors of the shirts match the clothes you already own. This will allow you to wear the clothing more often, which means you will get more use out of it.

The available colors of Young and Reckless shirts include red, grey, black, green, and navy blue. It is important to be aware that the prices will differ depending on the logo that is printed on the shirt. There are shirts with reckless, obnoxious and loud captions in quite large fonts and bright colors. Other shirts incorporate simple logos that target conservative people who like to keep it cool and simple. This just underlines the variety of different people who would want to buy these t-shirts.

While this brand has become quite popular, it is important to acknowledge that it does not come cheap. This is especially the case with shirts having loud logos printed on them. While this may deter many people from buying the shirts, you should remember that there are ways in which you can buy them at low prices. How about starting off by looking into secondhand stores? Most of the Young and Reckless shirts you find in these stores are not too worn. You can also be on the lookout for promotions and discount sales that most stores will have at certain times of the year. Summer and winter clearance sales are particularly good times to look for affordable Young and Reckless shirts. Alternatively, you could buy them in large quantities, getting discounts from the stores by buying in bulk.

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Young and reckless shirts

When you are looking for cheap fashion clothing & accessories, you just need to know where to look. Its all about knowing where to shop and what to look for when shopping.Click here for

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Ontario Votes 2007: Interview with Green candidate Jim Reeves, York-Simcoe

Monday, October 1, 2007

Jim Reeves is running for the Green Party of Ontario in the Ontario provincial election, in the York-Simcoe riding. Wikinews’ Nick Moreau interviewed him regarding his values, his experience, and his campaign.

Stay tuned for further interviews; every candidate from every party is eligible, and will be contacted. Expect interviews from Liberals, Progressive Conservatives, New Democratic Party members, Ontario Greens, as well as members from the Family Coalition, Freedom, Communist, Libertarian, and Confederation of Regions parties, as well as independents.


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Ontario Votes 2007: Interview with Green candidate Jim Reeves, York-Simcoe

Possibility of new graphic health warnings on NZ cigarette packs

Wednesday, May 10, 2006

New Zealand Associate Minister of Health Damien O’Connor has proposed that warnings, both images and text, should cover 60% of the packaging of cigarettes sold in the country. New Zealand is required to do so under obligations to the World Health Organisation.

The new images would depict throat cancer, rotting teeth/gums and gangrenous feet. Ashley Bloomfield, Chief Advisor on Public Health, says written warnings aren’t as effective as pictures, and that many smokers do not know most of the diseases that smoking can cause.

If the proposal were adopted, the Ministry would dictate the size and placement of the images to the tobacco companies, but would not subsidise the cost of the changes.


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Possibility of new graphic health warnings on NZ cigarette packs

Ontario Votes 2007: Interview with Green candidate Marion Schaffer, Oakville

Monday, September 24, 2007

Marion Schaffer is running for the Green Party of Ontario in the Ontario provincial election, in the Oakville riding. Wikinews’ Nick Moreau interviewed her regarding her values, her experience, and her campaign.

Stay tuned for further interviews; every candidate from every party is eligible, and will be contacted. Expect interviews from Liberals, Progressive Conservatives, New Democratic Party members, Ontario Greens, as well as members from the Family Coalition, Freedom, Communist, Libertarian, and Confederation of Regions parties, as well as independents.


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Ontario Votes 2007: Interview with Green candidate Marion Schaffer, Oakville

Phalaenopsis Orchid Care

By Jordi Ribal

When we take a look at the several orchid species we can easily find at the flower shop, we can be almost sure that one at least of the orchid flowers we have perceived is a Phalaenopsis. They are almost everywhere: in fancy hotels, at some ceremonies, and mothers used to have them on the mothers day. Phalaenopsis are very common and a great amount of orchid growers call them phal orchids.

Phalaenopsis Orchids are also called Phal Orchids by orchids growers. They constitute one of the most popular orchid species nowadays. In fact, chances are that the orchids you watched last week at that fancy hotel or the fair orchids your aunt was given on the mothers day were phalaenopsis (even if you might had never heard about phal orchids up to now!)

Phalaenopsis orchids are the option for many starters that begin to grow their own orchid flowers, because they are very easy to have. We might say that they are, perhaps, the easiest orchid flowers to grow and care for.

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Indeed, lots of people who begin growing their orchids at home or in their gardens prefer phalaenopsis orchids, since this species is not very choosy and they can be grown fairly easily with a little care.

Nonetheless, phal orchids, as other species and types of orchids, request a little care and attention from us. Particularly, we must bear in mind the right amount of water and light they need.

While a good deal of light is crucial for our phalaenopsis orchid to be happy, it should be a shady or indirect light. If we grow our phalaenopsis inside our house, it is recommended to set the plant near a window looking south or east so that it receives the kind of light it requires. At any rate, the phalaenopsis orchid plant must not be exposed to the direct rays of the sun, especially to the hard rays of the afternoon sun.

If it is not possible to place the orchid plant near the windows, no problem, as phalaenopsis orchids have an extraordinary capacity to adapt themselves, so that they can grow healthily under artificial lights. As long as they can have sufficient hours of light, we can place our phalaenopsis orchid under fluorescent or even grow lights. Only make sure that your phalaenopsis is set, at least, at one or two feet away from the light source.

Regarding water, we must know that phalaenopsis orchids like to be watered a little more frequently than other orchid plants like, for example, oncidiums. Howevwe, it is also important for us to know that the orchid media must have very good drainage; otherwise the roots of our orchid could get rot. A good solution is to have our phal orchid sitting in bark and feel the pot from time to time to make sure that it is not getting completely dry. When the bark is nearly dry, it is time for our orchid to get more water.

About the Author: You surely are interested in visiting Jordis site to get more tips and tricks to grow your

phalaenopsis

orchids. Visit also

phalaenopsis-orchidcare.com/

.

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Decorating Your Deck}

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Decorating your Deck

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nomaintenancedecks

Submitted by admin on Fri, 2013-05-03 12:12

Your deck should be a private space to retreat, relax and/or entertain. The decor and furniture you decide to use will create the ambience but must also be both durable and comfortable. As the aim is a relaxing, informal atmosphere, you could opt for a very colorful color scheme or go all natural with cream, white and earthen tints.

Shade and Privacy

In order to truly enjoy your deck, there should be ample shade on those hot summer days. The type of shade you use will play a surprisingly big role in the overall look, so choose wisely.

If you are lucky enough to have a huge tree in your deck area, this alone could already provide enough shade and atmosphere. You could twist fairy lights around its stems and hang lanterns and other decorative objects (such as glass bottles) from its branches for an interesting effect.

For those on a tight budget, a plain outdoor umbrella is a must and you could customize it by painting it yourself, or add crystal beads to create an arty look.

If you are a minimalist, use plain, white canvas for shade and opt for white curtains for extra shade or privacy. If you, however, are a bit more Bohemian, use canvases or streamers in bright colors and plenty of scatter cushions.

The green fingered among us would do well to establish vines to cover the trellises. Using screens is also a good idea for extra privacy and decorative effect. You could either hang tea candles or pot plants for it, or opt for beautiful wrought iron or ornate hand carved screens that are already very decorative pieces.

Plants

Potted plants serve very well as extra decoration on your deck. They create a green space and nothing is as relaxing as nature itself. Paint ordinary terracotta pots in different bright colors for added effect.

Water Feature

A water fountain will bring sounds of tranquility to your deck and is a smart way to block out other noise. They come in all shapes and sizes, so you don’t even need a big deck to accommodate one. From a water garden to water circulating in a pot, a water feature is always soothing to both the eye and the ear.

Lights

Lighting is ever important to create an ambience in the evening and at night. Solar lighting is very cost effective and convenient. As the lights simply come on when it is dark, your deck would always be beautifully lit. Solar garden lights are also built to withstand all weather conditions. Lanterns are also very decorative; you could choose a traditional garden lantern, or use Chinese paper lanterns to shed a colorful but soft glow. Rope lights could be wound around your deck’s railings, overhead trellises or rafters.

Furniture

The furniture you choose to use on your deck will be a focal point and should complement your deck. It is also important that it is durable and wooden furniture should be treated regularly to keep it in a good condition. Wicker, wooden and steel sets with loose cushions is a popular choice for outdoor furniture. Furniture made from pallets is the latest craze, but for optimal comfort, beanbags are a good choice.

Timbertech Railing

, High Performance Decking, Low Maintenance Living, It’s Our Passion! For more info visit – http://www.nomaintenancedecks.com/timbertech-decking-railing/

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Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

A new historic physics record has been set by scientists for exceedingly small writing, opening a new door to computing‘s future. Stanford University physicists have claimed to have written the letters “SU” at sub-atomic size.

Graduate students Christopher Moon, Laila Mattos, Brian Foster and Gabriel Zeltzer, under the direction of assistant professor of physics Hari Manoharan, have produced the world’s smallest lettering, which is approximately 1.5 nanometres tall, using a molecular projector, called Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) to push individual carbon monoxide molecules on a copper or silver sheet surface, based on interference of electron energy states.

A nanometre (Greek: ?????, nanos, dwarf; ?????, metr?, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (i.e., 10-9 m or one millionth of a millimetre), and also equals ten Ångström, an internationally recognized non-SI unit of length. It is often associated with the field of nanotechnology.

“We miniaturised their size so drastically that we ended up with the smallest writing in history,” said Manoharan. “S” and “U,” the two letters in honor of their employer have been reduced so tiny in nanoimprint that if used to print out 32 volumes of an Encyclopedia, 2,000 times, the contents would easily fit on a pinhead.

In the world of downsizing, nanoscribes Manoharan and Moon have proven that information, if reduced in size smaller than an atom, can be stored in more compact form than previously thought. In computing jargon, small sizing results to greater speed and better computer data storage.

“Writing really small has a long history. We wondered: What are the limits? How far can you go? Because materials are made of atoms, it was always believed that if you continue scaling down, you’d end up at that fundamental limit. You’d hit a wall,” said Manoharan.

In writing the letters, the Stanford team utilized an electron‘s unique feature of “pinball table for electrons” — its ability to bounce between different quantum states. In the vibration-proof basement lab of Stanford’s Varian Physics Building, the physicists used a Scanning tunneling microscope in encoding the “S” and “U” within the patterns formed by the electron’s activity, called wave function, arranging carbon monoxide molecules in a very specific pattern on a copper or silver sheet surface.

“Imagine [the copper as] a very shallow pool of water into which we put some rocks [the carbon monoxide molecules]. The water waves scatter and interfere off the rocks, making well defined standing wave patterns,” Manoharan noted. If the “rocks” are placed just right, then the shapes of the waves will form any letters in the alphabet, the researchers said. They used the quantum properties of electrons, rather than photons, as their source of illumination.

According to the study, the atoms were ordered in a circular fashion, with a hole in the middle. A flow of electrons was thereafter fired at the copper support, which resulted into a ripple effect in between the existing atoms. These were pushed aside, and a holographic projection of the letters “SU” became visible in the space between them. “What we did is show that the atom is not the limit — that you can go below that,” Manoharan said.

“It’s difficult to properly express the size of their stacked S and U, but the equivalent would be 0.3 nanometres. This is sufficiently small that you could copy out the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin not just once, but thousands of times over,” Manoharan and his nanohologram collaborator Christopher Moon explained.

The team has also shown the salient features of the holographic principle, a property of quantum gravity theories which resolves the black hole information paradox within string theory. They stacked “S” and the “U” – two layers, or pages, of information — within the hologram.

The team stressed their discovery was concentrating electrons in space, in essence, a wire, hoping such a structure could be used to wire together a super-fast quantum computer in the future. In essence, “these electron patterns can act as holograms, that pack information into subatomic spaces, which could one day lead to unlimited information storage,” the study states.

The “Conclusion” of the Stanford article goes as follows:

According to theory, a quantum state can encode any amount of information (at zero temperature), requiring only sufficiently high bandwidth and time in which to read it out. In practice, only recently has progress been made towards encoding several bits into the shapes of bosonic single-photon wave functions, which has applications in quantum key distribution. We have experimentally demonstrated that 35 bits can be permanently encoded into a time-independent fermionic state, and that two such states can be simultaneously prepared in the same area of space. We have simulated hundreds of stacked pairs of random 7 times 5-pixel arrays as well as various ideas for pathological bit patterns, and in every case the information was theoretically encodable. In all experimental attempts, extending down to the subatomic regime, the encoding was successful and the data were retrieved at 100% fidelity. We believe the limitations on bit size are approxlambda/4, but surprisingly the information density can be significantly boosted by using higher-energy electrons and stacking multiple pages holographically. Determining the full theoretical and practical limits of this technique—the trade-offs between information content (the number of pages and bits per page), contrast (the number of measurements required per bit to overcome noise), and the number of atoms in the hologram—will involve further work.Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, Christopher R. Moon, Laila S. Mattos, Brian K. Foster, Gabriel Zeltzer & Hari C. Manoharan

The team is not the first to design or print small letters, as attempts have been made since as early as 1960. In December 1959, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, who delivered his now-legendary lecture entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” promised new opportunities for those who “thought small.”

Feynman was an American physicist known for the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as work in particle physics (he proposed the parton model).

Feynman offered two challenges at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, held that year in Caltech, offering a $1000 prize to the first person to solve each of them. Both challenges involved nanotechnology, and the first prize was won by William McLellan, who solved the first. The first problem required someone to build a working electric motor that would fit inside a cube 1/64 inches on each side. McLellan achieved this feat by November 1960 with his 250-microgram 2000-rpm motor consisting of 13 separate parts.

In 1985, the prize for the second challenge was claimed by Stanford Tom Newman, who, working with electrical engineering professor Fabian Pease, used electron lithography. He wrote or engraved the first page of Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities, at the required scale, on the head of a pin, with a beam of electrons. The main problem he had before he could claim the prize was finding the text after he had written it; the head of the pin was a huge empty space compared with the text inscribed on it. Such small print could only be read with an electron microscope.

In 1989, however, Stanford lost its record, when Donald Eigler and Erhard Schweizer, scientists at IBM’s Almaden Research Center in San Jose were the first to position or manipulate 35 individual atoms of xenon one at a time to form the letters I, B and M using a STM. The atoms were pushed on the surface of the nickel to create letters 5nm tall.

In 1991, Japanese researchers managed to chisel 1.5 nm-tall characters onto a molybdenum disulphide crystal, using the same STM method. Hitachi, at that time, set the record for the smallest microscopic calligraphy ever designed. The Stanford effort failed to surpass the feat, but it, however, introduced a novel technique. Having equaled Hitachi’s record, the Stanford team went a step further. They used a holographic variation on the IBM technique, for instead of fixing the letters onto a support, the new method created them holographically.

In the scientific breakthrough, the Stanford team has now claimed they have written the smallest letters ever – assembled from subatomic-sized bits as small as 0.3 nanometers, or roughly one third of a billionth of a meter. The new super-mini letters created are 40 times smaller than the original effort and more than four times smaller than the IBM initials, states the paper Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, published online in the journal Nature Nanotechnology. The new sub-atomic size letters are around a third of the size of the atomic ones created by Eigler and Schweizer at IBM.

A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter. Subatomic particles include the atomic constituents electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are composite particles, consisting of quarks.

“Everyone can look around and see the growing amount of information we deal with on a daily basis. All that knowledge is out there. For society to move forward, we need a better way to process it, and store it more densely,” Manoharan said. “Although these projections are stable — they’ll last as long as none of the carbon dioxide molecules move — this technique is unlikely to revolutionize storage, as it’s currently a bit too challenging to determine and create the appropriate pattern of molecules to create a desired hologram,” the authors cautioned. Nevertheless, they suggest that “the practical limits of both the technique and the data density it enables merit further research.”

In 2000, it was Hari Manoharan, Christopher Lutz and Donald Eigler who first experimentally observed quantum mirage at the IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California. In physics, a quantum mirage is a peculiar result in quantum chaos. Their study in a paper published in Nature, states they demonstrated that the Kondo resonance signature of a magnetic adatom located at one focus of an elliptically shaped quantum corral could be projected to, and made large at the other focus of the corral.


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Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall

U.S. develops parks above highways

Tuesday, February 20, 2007

In big cities, finding land for new parks is less of an expedition than an all-out land-rights battle with property owners. But some cities across the U.S. have found a slightly easier way to add to their greenspace. By utilizing the state’s air rights to the space above freeways that run below at ground level, cities can acquire 5 or 10 acres of parkspace essentially for free, such Freeway Park which occupies 5.5 acres above a freeway in downtown Seattle.

Of course, this free “land” is actually nothing more than open air above a freeway, requiring cities to pay the high construction costs of capping the roadway with land.

Such projects are currently being planned in St. Louis, Cincinnati, Dallas and San Diego. A recent article in Governing Magazine looks at more than two dozen highway deck parks that have been built or are under construction in the U.S. The article finds that even though the price of constructing parks on top of freeways can rise upwards of $500 per square foot, property values and local development boom once they are completed.


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U.S. develops parks above highways

Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall

Wednesday, February 4, 2009

A new historic physics record has been set by scientists for exceedingly small writing, opening a new door to computing‘s future. Stanford University physicists have claimed to have written the letters “SU” at sub-atomic size.

Graduate students Christopher Moon, Laila Mattos, Brian Foster and Gabriel Zeltzer, under the direction of assistant professor of physics Hari Manoharan, have produced the world’s smallest lettering, which is approximately 1.5 nanometres tall, using a molecular projector, called Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) to push individual carbon monoxide molecules on a copper or silver sheet surface, based on interference of electron energy states.

A nanometre (Greek: ?????, nanos, dwarf; ?????, metr?, count) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth of a metre (i.e., 10-9 m or one millionth of a millimetre), and also equals ten Ångström, an internationally recognized non-SI unit of length. It is often associated with the field of nanotechnology.

“We miniaturised their size so drastically that we ended up with the smallest writing in history,” said Manoharan. “S” and “U,” the two letters in honor of their employer have been reduced so tiny in nanoimprint that if used to print out 32 volumes of an Encyclopedia, 2,000 times, the contents would easily fit on a pinhead.

In the world of downsizing, nanoscribes Manoharan and Moon have proven that information, if reduced in size smaller than an atom, can be stored in more compact form than previously thought. In computing jargon, small sizing results to greater speed and better computer data storage.

“Writing really small has a long history. We wondered: What are the limits? How far can you go? Because materials are made of atoms, it was always believed that if you continue scaling down, you’d end up at that fundamental limit. You’d hit a wall,” said Manoharan.

In writing the letters, the Stanford team utilized an electron‘s unique feature of “pinball table for electrons” — its ability to bounce between different quantum states. In the vibration-proof basement lab of Stanford’s Varian Physics Building, the physicists used a Scanning tunneling microscope in encoding the “S” and “U” within the patterns formed by the electron’s activity, called wave function, arranging carbon monoxide molecules in a very specific pattern on a copper or silver sheet surface.

“Imagine [the copper as] a very shallow pool of water into which we put some rocks [the carbon monoxide molecules]. The water waves scatter and interfere off the rocks, making well defined standing wave patterns,” Manoharan noted. If the “rocks” are placed just right, then the shapes of the waves will form any letters in the alphabet, the researchers said. They used the quantum properties of electrons, rather than photons, as their source of illumination.

According to the study, the atoms were ordered in a circular fashion, with a hole in the middle. A flow of electrons was thereafter fired at the copper support, which resulted into a ripple effect in between the existing atoms. These were pushed aside, and a holographic projection of the letters “SU” became visible in the space between them. “What we did is show that the atom is not the limit — that you can go below that,” Manoharan said.

“It’s difficult to properly express the size of their stacked S and U, but the equivalent would be 0.3 nanometres. This is sufficiently small that you could copy out the Encyclopaedia Britannica on the head of a pin not just once, but thousands of times over,” Manoharan and his nanohologram collaborator Christopher Moon explained.

The team has also shown the salient features of the holographic principle, a property of quantum gravity theories which resolves the black hole information paradox within string theory. They stacked “S” and the “U” – two layers, or pages, of information — within the hologram.

The team stressed their discovery was concentrating electrons in space, in essence, a wire, hoping such a structure could be used to wire together a super-fast quantum computer in the future. In essence, “these electron patterns can act as holograms, that pack information into subatomic spaces, which could one day lead to unlimited information storage,” the study states.

The “Conclusion” of the Stanford article goes as follows:

According to theory, a quantum state can encode any amount of information (at zero temperature), requiring only sufficiently high bandwidth and time in which to read it out. In practice, only recently has progress been made towards encoding several bits into the shapes of bosonic single-photon wave functions, which has applications in quantum key distribution. We have experimentally demonstrated that 35 bits can be permanently encoded into a time-independent fermionic state, and that two such states can be simultaneously prepared in the same area of space. We have simulated hundreds of stacked pairs of random 7 times 5-pixel arrays as well as various ideas for pathological bit patterns, and in every case the information was theoretically encodable. In all experimental attempts, extending down to the subatomic regime, the encoding was successful and the data were retrieved at 100% fidelity. We believe the limitations on bit size are approxlambda/4, but surprisingly the information density can be significantly boosted by using higher-energy electrons and stacking multiple pages holographically. Determining the full theoretical and practical limits of this technique—the trade-offs between information content (the number of pages and bits per page), contrast (the number of measurements required per bit to overcome noise), and the number of atoms in the hologram—will involve further work.Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, Christopher R. Moon, Laila S. Mattos, Brian K. Foster, Gabriel Zeltzer & Hari C. Manoharan

The team is not the first to design or print small letters, as attempts have been made since as early as 1960. In December 1959, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman, who delivered his now-legendary lecture entitled “There’s Plenty of Room at the Bottom,” promised new opportunities for those who “thought small.”

Feynman was an American physicist known for the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as work in particle physics (he proposed the parton model).

Feynman offered two challenges at the annual meeting of the American Physical Society, held that year in Caltech, offering a $1000 prize to the first person to solve each of them. Both challenges involved nanotechnology, and the first prize was won by William McLellan, who solved the first. The first problem required someone to build a working electric motor that would fit inside a cube 1/64 inches on each side. McLellan achieved this feat by November 1960 with his 250-microgram 2000-rpm motor consisting of 13 separate parts.

In 1985, the prize for the second challenge was claimed by Stanford Tom Newman, who, working with electrical engineering professor Fabian Pease, used electron lithography. He wrote or engraved the first page of Charles Dickens’ A Tale of Two Cities, at the required scale, on the head of a pin, with a beam of electrons. The main problem he had before he could claim the prize was finding the text after he had written it; the head of the pin was a huge empty space compared with the text inscribed on it. Such small print could only be read with an electron microscope.

In 1989, however, Stanford lost its record, when Donald Eigler and Erhard Schweizer, scientists at IBM’s Almaden Research Center in San Jose were the first to position or manipulate 35 individual atoms of xenon one at a time to form the letters I, B and M using a STM. The atoms were pushed on the surface of the nickel to create letters 5nm tall.

In 1991, Japanese researchers managed to chisel 1.5 nm-tall characters onto a molybdenum disulphide crystal, using the same STM method. Hitachi, at that time, set the record for the smallest microscopic calligraphy ever designed. The Stanford effort failed to surpass the feat, but it, however, introduced a novel technique. Having equaled Hitachi’s record, the Stanford team went a step further. They used a holographic variation on the IBM technique, for instead of fixing the letters onto a support, the new method created them holographically.

In the scientific breakthrough, the Stanford team has now claimed they have written the smallest letters ever – assembled from subatomic-sized bits as small as 0.3 nanometers, or roughly one third of a billionth of a meter. The new super-mini letters created are 40 times smaller than the original effort and more than four times smaller than the IBM initials, states the paper Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas, published online in the journal Nature Nanotechnology. The new sub-atomic size letters are around a third of the size of the atomic ones created by Eigler and Schweizer at IBM.

A subatomic particle is an elementary or composite particle smaller than an atom. Particle physics and nuclear physics are concerned with the study of these particles, their interactions, and non-atomic matter. Subatomic particles include the atomic constituents electrons, protons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are composite particles, consisting of quarks.

“Everyone can look around and see the growing amount of information we deal with on a daily basis. All that knowledge is out there. For society to move forward, we need a better way to process it, and store it more densely,” Manoharan said. “Although these projections are stable — they’ll last as long as none of the carbon dioxide molecules move — this technique is unlikely to revolutionize storage, as it’s currently a bit too challenging to determine and create the appropriate pattern of molecules to create a desired hologram,” the authors cautioned. Nevertheless, they suggest that “the practical limits of both the technique and the data density it enables merit further research.”

In 2000, it was Hari Manoharan, Christopher Lutz and Donald Eigler who first experimentally observed quantum mirage at the IBM Almaden Research Center in San Jose, California. In physics, a quantum mirage is a peculiar result in quantum chaos. Their study in a paper published in Nature, states they demonstrated that the Kondo resonance signature of a magnetic adatom located at one focus of an elliptically shaped quantum corral could be projected to, and made large at the other focus of the corral.


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Stanford physicists print smallest-ever letters ‘SU’ at subatomic level of 1.5 nanometres tall